Written by S. J. Soter, MD, PhD

I have written this paper in order to explore a particular kind of occurrence that I have encountered while practicing psychoanalysis.  I was not sure how to label this experience.  Initially, I intended to call it "sleep reaction", but that fails to capture its essence. A dream state or a meditative state is closer, but is still inadequate.  The phenomenon that I am presenting consists of a change of consciousness in the analyst, which on the surface appears like a sleep state and then a subsequent production of images, and at times feeling states which facilitate an unconscious form of communication between analyst and analysand.  Consequently I employed the descriptive term, "Imaginal Communicative State". 

Freud (1922), alludes to such an unconscious communicative connection between patient and analyst when he stated, " [h]e (analyst) must turn his own unconscious like a receptive organ toward the transmitting unconscious of the patient. He must adjust himself to the patient as telephone receiver is adjusted to the transmitting microphone. Just as the receiver converts back into sound waves the electronic oscillations in the telephone line which were set up by sound waves, so the doctor's unconscious is able from the derivatives of the unconscious which are communicated to him, to reconstruct the unconscious". So Freud saw the analyst as a receiver of unconscious material which is somehow transmitted from the analysand to the psyche of the analyst. He does not, however, describe how this transmission of derivatives occurs. An answer to this question can be found in Ellenberger (1979) when he states that Freud told Lou Andreas-Salome, " ...of a strange case of thought transmission that had come to his knowledge." So thoughts are somehow transmitted from one person to another. Freud (1925) goes on to say that "... sleep creates favorable conditions for telepathy (thought transmission)..." to occur.   Ellenberger (1979) goes on to state that Freud believed that it was through the transference that the phenomenon of telepathy could be explored. It is clear that what Freud is saying is that unconscious material is quite possibly transmitted in a telepathic manner from the psyche of the analysand to that of the analyst, that is non verbally from unconscious to unconscious.

Jung, in ........ also speaks to the power of the unconscious communication between patient and analyst. He depicted in the famous illustration of the arrowed box, which depicted communicational vectors between the analyst and patient with various permutations of conscious and unconscious connection. But, again as with Freud he too failed to operationalize how this takes place. He does, however, allude to such occurrences in his paper on Syncronicity: an acausal principle. In this article he says that Syncronicity consists of an unconscious image that comes into consciousness either directly or indirectly and an objective situation that coincides with this content. I take Jung to mean that the analysand's psyche is in communicative contact with the psyche of the analyst.

In "The Psychology Of The Transference", Jung (1954) describes the alchemical submerging of the King and the Queen in water. Which in psychological terms indicates a mutual state of unconsciousness in which they are connected by the medium of the water. He calls this state the "coniunctio", which he defines as, "... a union in unconscious identy, which could be compared with the primitive, initial state of chaos, the " massa confusa", or rather with the state of "participation mystique" where heterogeneous factors merge in an unconscious relationship".  Jung's Ideas ring similiar to the current thinking of Quantum Physicists.  Herbert (1988) states that "... substances that were once joined together possess a continuing linkage..." I understand this to mean that  there exist a connection between all human beings which in we humans resonate with one another regardless of space and time.  What this means is that when something occurs in let us say person "A" it simultaneously occurs in person "B". He also believes that "... although the strength of the quantum connection does not diminish with distance, the specificity of the connection can be diluted as the quantum... interacts with irrelevant objects..."  he concludes his thoughts by making a very important point, "... all things are linked, but recent links count the most."  These ideas are important to the transference  in an analysis because as we all know that it possesses an affectual power and an immediacy which strengthen the linking between the analyst and analysand and thus allows for a simultaneous connection of psyches and the flow of imaginal material with in that quantum connection. 

What is important to keep in mind is the that both Freud and Jung were aware that the analyst, in order to understand the analysand must allow his psyche to become a receptor of the unconscious communications of the patient. Neither Jung nor Freud operationalize how this unconscious communication took place, but they are very aware that it did exist.

FOCUS OF PAPER

It is my thesis that the so-called sleep state which occurs with in the analyst during the analytic hour is one of those very important instances that has the potential for a deep communicative connection between patient and analyst. It must be borne in mind that I am not suggesting by this investigation that the sleep reaction in the analyst is only the result of a deep interpsychic connection. There are times when the feeling of tiredness in the analytic hour is caused by boredom, anger, or just plain being up too late the night before.  However, to stop at such explanations is to disregard the spirit of analytic work. This paper attempts to explore the function of the analyst's apparent sleep state during the analytic hour by looking at the current literature, exploring a fairy tale and looking at clinical vignettes which elucidate the phenomena.

I am sure that everyone in practice has had the experience of drowsiness or actually falling asleep during a session. A typical experience is that the analyst's eyes get heavy and slowly his or her head begins to drift forward as he is aware that something is happening beyond his control; he fights to maintain his previous state of consciousness.  When that fight is not successful the most dreaded happening in analysis occurs: the snapping of the analyst's head and the ensuing rush toward consciousness that leaves the analyst breathless. I have used many techniques to prevent myself from falling into this so-called state of sleep from rubbing my eyes to pinching various parts of my body.  I believe my resistance to succumbing to this state has been the fear of appearing disinterested in the analysand's material.  Furthermore, I did not want to be seen as being out of control and thus somehow vulnerable to this other person. 

There are a number of explanations for this phenomena, some more insightful than others.  On a more superficial level, explanations rest on straightforward lack of sleep, "I didn't get enough sleep last night" to sheer boredom, "the patient's material was just so boring that sleep was the only possible analytic solution."  I am quite sure that at certain times during the course of an analysis that these explanations have some veracity. However to disregard the phenomena so easily and with such little thought is in my minds wrong. The more thoughtful explanations take into account the analysand's possible projection of unconscious rage, or the analyst using sleep as a defense against painful unconscious material, whether his own or the analysand.  No mater what level of explanation is used, it is evident that this kind of reaction is viewed negatively as a kind of counter-transference. 

While there may be some validity in the latter explanations, my clinical experience suggests that it is a phenomena of greater complexity than they allow for.  Thus, I was motivated to investigate this experience in greater depths and was subsequently led in an unexpected direction.  This direction may be held in suspicion by many, for it is nonrational and relies on an imaginal unconscious link between the analyst an analysand. I am referring to the images and feeling states produced by the unconscious when two people are intensely engaged in the process of psychoanalysis. 

The sleepy state of this phenomenon is not similar to normal kinds of sleep where someone is "dead to the world" and snores.  Rather this sleepiness is a kind of twilight state in which images pass before the analyst. It would not be wrong to call this a form of projective identification. O'Shaughnessy (19--) writes of Bion ideas of projective identification that "... it is the first mode of communication between mother and child...  a nine year girl patient who displayed isolation and in turn protectively put them into the analyst, who in turn  began to feel isolated.     Bion (----) goes on to say that in order for this to happen the other must be in a state of what he calls "reverie"  which we can say is a psychic state of receptivity to the needs and emotional life of the other.

Bion points to the psychic situation in which the analysands words of are unable to convey the emotional meaning which is being struggled with. Or the words are unable to convey the emotion and ideas which beg for expression. So it is in this state of "reverie" that the analyst is able to receive the unconscious material from the analysand. I would liken this state of reverie to the Jungian term of " l'abaissement du niveau mental" in which the energy of the analyst is withdrawn from the conscious outside world into the unconscious. This state appears to similar the  "telepathy" in which information is passed from one person to another. But in this case there is conscious desire to pass this information.

When I began work on this paper I was convinced that the communication was solely passed via image apperception, however it is clear that tactile apperception is also involved. I am also convinced that in order for this material to pass from the analysand to the analyst there must exist profound connection between the two people like the mother/child relationship. Eisenbud(1946) states that,

"... telepathy seems to require a certain optimal temperature, failing which the reaction does not come about."  Winncott (1965) likens it to the child signaling to the mother his needs via images projected into her. The connection is similar to the archaic mother/child relationship. In this connection the image symbolizes the deep seated need of the child. Bion (1984) takes this a step further by saying that "...the communication need... of the patients inner world projected into the analyst is a away of being better understood."    

My experience has lead me to conclude that this sleep reaction or dream-like state is a communicative imaginative reaction, where the images represent symbols of unconscious communication between two people. It can be likened to Jung's idea of the Transcendent Function in which the symbol both functions to convey a need of the psyche and at the same time presents a possible resolution of psychic conflict.

This communicative imaginal reaction is best demonstrated by a chronicle of my experiences with it.  Unfortunately, these experiences are limited because I have been hesitant to allow this process to occur for fear of what others would think.

The first encounter I had with this type of reaction was in a face-to-face analytic situation, in which I was the analysand.  There were times over the course of a session where the analyst's eyes would begin to close, his head would drift forward and there would be silence.  At that time there was no doubt in my mind that he was sleeping.  As time progressed, however, my perception of what was happening to both of us changed profoundly.  He may have looked like he was sleeping, but he remained very involved in the analytic process.  Contrary to appearances, something important was happening between the two of us.  After a few minutes he would suddenly awaken and begin to speak.  The content of his interpretations were always in tune with my thoughts and images.   He was able to pinpoint the conflicts with which I was dealing.  At first I thought it was magic.  How could he know?  But soon I realized that there had been profound communication during these periods, but of a non-verbal type. 

Concurrently, I was in a mental health training program as a member of a therapy group.  One of the members was working on an issue, the meaning and dynamics of which alluded to both the leaders and the other group members.  As she spoke I found myself drifting off to sleep.  I did not fight it, I just let it happen and began to see images, particularly of cows, drifting before me.  When I awoke, which could have been no more than 5 minutes later, I was puzzled by the images of cows being produced in my unconscious.  I wondered if it could have had something to do with what the group member was talking about. As I pondered this question, I was suddenly struck that the symbol of the cow has a definite mother-like quality.  I thought more about this as I continued to listen.  It became clear to me that the material had to do with a negative mother complex and the cow that I had imagined was pointing in that direction.  I realized that there was a parallel between my image and what was occurring before me. It then became clear that it was not magic.  Rather, it was clearly a process in which images were being stimulated in the unconscious through a non verbal interactive process.

Many years passed before I was able to allow myself the luxury of drifting into the imaginal realm and not struggling against it.  My next experience was with an analysand who had a dream that she was being made to disappear by someone pouring acid on her.  She reported that there were no bones, no blood and no pain and that she disappeared leaving no trace of herself.  As we explored the dream and its images, I began to feel a heaviness in my eyes.  My first instinct, of course, was to fight it, but I did not.  I began to enter the imaginal realm.  I saw the image of a dog with what appeared to be a wound in the neck.  When I awoke I wondered what this image meant.  What was she communicating by this wounded dog?  What did it symbolize?  I was not sure, but knew it must have had some significance.  I felt I must share this image with her. So I asked her why she thought our interaction would produce the image of a wounded dog. She responded by saying that when the person was pouring acid on her she was both looking at herself and covering her eyes with her hands at the same time.  This led to her making the connection to her feelings of being bad and evil and to her very deep shame. She went on to say that "In the dream I am being eliminated like a plague from the world, I am being burned so I can't spread anymore, and can't contaminate anyone anymore." 

I experienced the image of the wounded dog, but it was stimulated by her and, in a sense, placed in me as an avenue of communication.  We were communicating with one another on the unconscious imaginal plane.   I could see and metaphorically touch her pain through the image of the dog.  This imaginal communication led us directly to the wound in her psyche and the rage that underlies her feelings of self depreciation. 

LITERATURE REVIEW

Dean (1957) sees the drowsiness in the analysts the result of the analyst being unable to articulate the dynamic processes within the patient. That is the analyst feels unable to do the analytic work with the analysand and uses sleep as a means of defense against feelings of helplessness.

Cohen (1952) takes Deans hypothesis a bit further and say that not only is it a question of the analyst feeling unable to function but in addition it is the "... unconscious resentment at the barrenness of the patients communications."  He then suggests that the awareness of the countertransferential problem needs the to be analyzed. The conclusion seems to follow from Dean's and Cohen's work that sleepiness in the analyst is the result of the patient trying to immobilize the analytic process in order to maintain the psychic status quo. They see it as a barrier to the deep exploration of the analysands psyche.

Dickes(1965), views the sleepiness on the part of the analyst, which he refers to as the hypnoidal state,  as an ego defense against unacceptable sexual and aggressive impulses in either the analysand or the analyst. The sleepiness thus becomes the place where each runs for cover when sexual and aggressive impulses become manifest in the analytic hour.

Mclaughlin (1975)  suggests that "... receptivity in a state of free floating attentiveness makes us susceptible to the regressive pull of the Patients dynamic concerns and our inner reverberation to these. Thus sleepiness occurs as a defense against the regressive pull of the analysand, who I suspect is trying to bring the analyst down to his psychic level so that the analysand can understood.

Kohut (1968)  believes that the sleep reaction indicates that the narcissistic patient is unable to view the analyst as a separate being. And that the sleep reaction reflects a profound state of disconnection which leaves the analyst feeling lost and that this results in the experience of drowsiness on the part of the analyst.

Brown (1977) in his paper states that the feeling of sleepiness in the analyst arises as a defensive measure on the part of the analysand so that elements of the personality are preserved as is the negative effect these elements would have on the analytic relationship. It is my sense that Brown saw the sleepiness as defensively preserving the analytic space.

Racker(1968) views the sleepy analyst as withdrawing his attention from unresponsive and frustrating patient.

      In his paper Stein(1992) speaks about a "hypnotic power of sleep in terms of his relationship and analytical interaction to his patient. He further intimates that there is a connective function in this environment he in fact calls it an "interpersonal field." Where is an energy flow ... psychodynamic forces are at work, usually at a mostly unconscious level..." In my opinion up to this point he is right, however he leaves the venue of the interpersonal unconscious field when he takes the step and says that the purpose of this sleepy hypnotic state, between analyst and analysand is to, " ... halt growth and development" Thus we must stay on the conscious level of the interpersonal field.   In his paper he uses a fairy tale, "The Shoes that were Danced to Pieces ".  He relates the story as follows: " A king had twelve daughters whose shoes were worn out with dancing each morning, despite his locking the door to their rooms and posting guards. The proclamation went out that whoever could discover how this happened could marry the princess of his choice. Death was the reward for failure. It happened that accepted the challenge, but all failed because they would fall asleep at the post. No-one, it seemed, could stay awake through the night. While the powerful field of sleep held sway, the mystery continued.

The hero of the story receives some advice from an old women who tells him not to drink the wine the princess will offer, and then to dress in the invisible cloak she will give him and to follow the princess wherever they go. He does as he has been advised, and what he discovers is that the secret life of the princesses. After dark, they go down into the earth through a trapdoor, walk thorough a magical garden are each rowed across a great lake a  corresponding prince, and spend the night dancing wildly in a beautiful palace. At dawn they return, close the trap door, and act as if they had been sleeping all night. The hero is able to accompany them, silently and invisibly and the next day he reports to the king what he has found. This breaks the spell. The complete GRIMM'S Fairy Tales., p596

Stein sees the fairy tale as indicating that " sleep freezes growth". I agree up to a point. I feel that he takes the story to literally. We must ask what is meant by the drugged sleep that had befallen the others. It is a sleep that is unnatural and one which closes off the unconscious. Our hero descends into the magical world of the unconscious with the princesses and is able to connect with their unconscious imagery. They descend through the bed into this dream world followed by our hero who remains invisible that is in a stat where he able to watch very deeply with the worry of having to worry about the issues which can be very distracting. By this receptivity he is able these images to become a part of him., but within their interpersonal field. He shares their images and is thus able to break the spell.  

He then goes on to talk of Jung's idea of psychic infection and how it is protectively identified into the psyche of the analyst. I am sure that Jung did not intent to mean that this psychic infection was counter to the analysands drive towards individuation. Rather it is an aid to the development of the empathic connection between the analyst and the analysand.

In summing up the literature up to this point it is clear that most see the sleepy analyst as failing to do the analytic work for a variety reasons which range from feelings of helplessness, to boredom, to feelings of rage towards the analysand. Basically they agree that sleepiness is a defense against countertransference affects within the analyst.

Wolfenstein (1985) sees the sleep reaction on the part of the analyst in a different light. He proposes that it may rather represent a connective link rather than an attempt at disconnection.

Dieckmann (1971) in his research project gives an example of being in session with a patient and having the fantasy of roses. In that session he believed that he was dealing with the patients repressed emotions. In the next session the patient told of an fantasy that had been recurring during the course of the week, namely a rose growing on the scorched earth. Dieckmann explains the  by saying, " I think this may probably be a very striking example of how the analyst's unconscious can be a highly sensitive receiver for the obsessive fantasies which the patient has. Or, better said: the self constellates the synchronicity of the fantasies in the two persons."  He goes on to say that Jung stated that, "... all psychic action and reactions between patient and analyst are in certain conscious and unconscious connection." and that the "... the unconscious material of the patient has a tendency to mobilize the corresponding unconscious  material inside the psyche of the analyst. The  patient and the analyst get into a specific relationship characterized by common unconscious factors." P.30

He states that, " ... not only were the associations of the analyst relevant to the session, ...every fantasy, emotion and so on, arising out of the analysts unconscious was either connected either the patient's associations that he was describing at a specific moment or else shortly following the patients fantasy"

It seems that Dieckmann's work points to image as a  rather strong connective unconscious link between patient and analyst.

It is evident that the preponderance of the literature views the sleepy reaction of the analyst in a negatively countertransferential light. Either the analysand is defending against there own psychic material and becomes unresponsive causing the analyst to loose interest in the analytic material and succumbing to the desire for distance by falling asleep. Or, the analysand precipitates such a strong response from the analyst that sleep is the only solution. Or, Lastly the analyst is unable to understand the significance of the material and uses sleep as a defense.

It is only in work of Wolfenstein and Dieckmann that we get a glimpse of a positive and linking effect of this phenomenon. I believe that this one sidedness of the literature resulted from the hesitation of the analytic community to allow themselves to experience the sleepiness and the unconscious communicative linking that it possesses. It appears that conscious communication is more valued in our analytic work than unconscious methods of communication.   

CLINICAL VIGNETTES

Dender (1994) in a paper called "The Phenomenon of the Sleepiness in the Analyst.  Speaks of a patient who presented a dream during an analytic hour, which produced in Dender the feeling of sleepiness. He attributes his sleepy response to the patient beginning to disconnect from the analysis. It is my thesis that Dender has mispercieved the meaning of his reaction to the patients material.

Patients dream:

" The old man represents decline, old age, the end of life, the opposite of all these "up" people that I'm mixing with.  I glanced over to the old man from time to time (the patients begins to cry softly). I wonder if he's ok, but I don't want to go over there and I feel somewhat badly about that( at this point, I'm starting feeling to feel sleepy). The tears are for leaving him alone, although he was good sport about it. I was off enjoying myself and hoping he'd be comfortable without my attention,(Now, I feeling quite sleepy). I'm abandoning him in some sense to be with other more lively people."

Then Dender says to the patient, " Is that how you feel about your mother? In his paper he gives no explanation of where this intervention comes from. The interpretation begs for a transference interpretation, but Dender goes to the Mother complex. We must question Why.  I suggest that the idea that the patient was dealing with her mother complex  emanated from the communicative connection between the patient and the analyst. and was conveyed via an image, which Dender does not mention and probably thought was not important.

In another vignette a patient was working with a dream image of getting on a smoking car of a train and feeling bothered by the smoke in her eyes and wanting to change cars. The analyst while listening to the dream image began to feel a sense of sleepiness come over her. She describes it as a " groggy feeling " . Upon noticing this feeling she began to question why she was feeling this way. The analyst felt that the patient was avoiding affective material. She reported that no particular image came to her, only that feeling of being "groggy". As the material was worked ed it became clear that the patient was working over issues being caught between "locales and homeless" that is not feeling connected, wandering with no roots to hold her down to the earth. The analyst and patient worked with the dream image successfully.

I believe that it was not a question of material being avoided on the part of the patient that caused the analyst to feel sleepy. Rather it was the patient putting the analyst in a receptive state so that she could truly understand what the patient was feeling. What didn't occur in this situation was that the image was not passed to the analyst. Possibly because the transmission did not have the power to cross the communicative bridge. Or that the analyst didn't allow herself to receive the image. However what was communicated was the "groggy" feeling which contains aspects of the image. To be "groggy " is to be in a state between two states, not grounded, and homeless. I suggest that the affective as part of the image was conveyed, but not the "picture". I further believe that if the analyst would have allowed the feeling of sleepiness to over take her she would have been able to receive the image.

Another analyst reported a similar situation in he began to feel sleepy and then became aware of a feeling of a deep void with in himself. As he processed the "void" feeling within himself he wondered what it meant to the patient and the patients process. He shared with the patient his feeling of the void. This led the patient to talk about his psychic feelings of estrangement and withdrawal, which indicated a psychotic process occurring within the patient.  Again we see that the subjective feeling of sleepiness as a receptive state on the part of the analyst, caused by the communicative energetic needs of the patient to he understood and empathized with. In this case, as with the other it is a feeling that is being transmitted by the patient. When the apperceived material is shared with the patient which, I believe, completes the communicative loop.     This indicates to both patient and analyst a very deep communicative connection and mutual understanding of psychic process.   

In his book , A Little course in Dreams, Boznak (1988) makes an interesting statement regarding the communicative function of an image. In his discussion of the dream of Stella he remarked that an image came to his mind as he as he worked over the dream material. He says, "I now have a relationship with Stella's dream via my own image material".     In another case of a male analysand in analysis for a number of years. It was the analyst perception that this man was stuck not only in the analytic work but also in his life. During the session in question there had been long periods of silence in which the analyst had the feeling that the analysand was holding back. During the period of silence the analyst became sleepy and let her self drift off in that state of reverie. An image came to her mind of large heavy black anvil stuck deep in sand underwater. After think about her image she decided to share it with her analysand. She asked, " tell me about the anvil?". The analysand replied with a startle, "how did you know about the anvil". The man went on to share a dream in which he had a large heavy black anvil around his neck. The analyst reported that this mutual image revealed a connectedness between there two psyche's. She went on to say that it was like two psyche's talking to each other on the level of the unconscious.

A man in his middle forties was revealing historical information about himself and how he was increasingly having difficulties staying focused and completing job assignments. As the analyst listened to this material he began to experience a heaviness in his eyes as his closed an image of this man standing next to a desk at a teaching institution appeared. After a few minutes thinking about the image the analyst asked the analysand, " As my eyes were closed I saw an image of you in a teaching institution, what does that mean to you ? He replied that what he had always wanted was to be an English literature teacher. His wish was never realized due to his fear that he would not make enough money and thus be seen as not successful in the eyes of his father.   

A 40 year old man dealing with issues concerning his hving AIDS was, during an analytic hour speaking of very painful material which coalesed around abondonment. During that session  the analyst began to feel sleepy. She closed her eyes as a result of the way she felt and and image came to her mind. It was an image of the analyst singing to the patient. The analyst shared the image to the analysand who responded by revaling that when he was a child and he felt sad his mother would sing to him and feel soothed and connected to her by the sound of her voice. The analyst took her image to indicate that the analysand was in need of connection and soothing in the form of empathy with the pain he was feeling in his life.

CONCLUSION

It is my position that the communicative imaginal reaction, is an important analytical tool that has been neglected for too long.  The feeling of sleepiness is not what it appears.  It is a pull of psychic energy to a much deeper level, a level where two people are communicating in an unadulterated way.  Agendas and preconceived notions have been set aside and the pureness of the image allows the analyst and analysand to touch one another in a very basic and human way.  There are some analysts who have reported experiencing a sinking feeling of falling into sleep, but with none accompanying images.   I believe this too can be important, because this lack of images may indicate a non-communicative need on either the part of the analyst or the analysand. In other words this may indicate an unconscious conspiracy to avoid deeply painful material.

There is a temptation to try to make logical sense of this process by trying to make sense its mechanics.  This is folly for there be no understanding in the traditional scientific way.  It is rather an experience of the connection and communication with another person. This mystery, rails against labeling and conscious control.  For the labeling of this deep connection attempts to place it under the ego's control.  Whereas in reality it comes in its own time and leaves just as abruptly.  we cannot force it, we can only be open to it.

I hope that this paper encourages those of us in the field of analytic psychology to break away from the conditioning that forces us to see things only in a rational and scientific way.  This process cannot be replicated in a laboratory nor can every experience of it be the same, but this should serve to make it more valuable not less so.  Analysts can experience the imaginal communicative state if they are open to the process though a willingness to take chances and to let their eyes close so they can see.  I am certainly not suggesting that we abandon rationality but I am suggesting a balance between the rational and the non-rational, the imaginal and the non-imaginal.  To disregard the non-rational, imaginal communication between two people is to neglect the power of the unconscious to communicate. 

Having named it I cannot pretend to own it, for it exists in the space between two people working together in the exploration of the psyche. 

I sincerely hope that this paper inspires others to examine this experience themselves.  It is a topic rich in potential and its study is presently wide open in the field of psychoanalysis.

Current Psychoanalytic theory deals with this kind of unconscious communication under the theoretical construct of Melane Klein and her ideas of projective identification which is term developed by Melane Klein and defines relationally a very delicate and intimate connection between analyst and analysand. Projective idetification refers to interactional efforts to put into another person--the object-- one's own inner contents,fantasies. What she is suggesting but not saying directly is that comunication between these two people occurrs in a telapathic manner. It seems to me that the analytic communitees reluctance to use such a term reflects an unnessary caution to be seen as not being " far out" in terms of theory.

It is my thesis that the sleepy reaction that occurs within the analysis is simiiar if not the same phenomenon described by Klein. Psychic contents are being placed into another in the form of images and sensate feelings. And that the sleepiness is much more than being tired, bored or angry. Bion(----) believed that the patient projects into the analyst those psychic elements which he is not able to communicate verbally and that those subjective contents are taken in by the analyst and are related to as both subjective contents and objective contents. The image symbol becomes the carrier of deep seated emotionally significant material which is defended against being known. Ullman (----) speculated "...that human relationships may be guided and influenced by some fundamental underlying force that occasionally surfaces into conscious psychic events, particularly during emotion-laden situations. Perhaps during these times, a collective consciousness is formed between individuals involved. "

I further believe that it is a receptive state produced by the mutual desire to communicate on a very symbolic level. ..." Lang's (1976) believes that," Technically, the analyst relies greatly in his subjective experiences with the paitent in identifying the latter's projective indentifications..." It is thus through inner experience that the analyst can make this psychic communicative connection and this occurs in both the imaginal and sensate planes of psychic experience.  on the other the image attracts corresponding subjective material within the analyst.

Murphy (1952) believes this kind of unconscious communication happens when it function to "...answer some emotional need of either the agent [patient] or the percipient [analyst].

Freud (----), in reference to this kind of psychic communication, said that it ..." may be the original method by which individuals understood one another, and which has  been pushed into the background in the course of phylogenetic [evolutionary] development by the better method of communication by means of signs apprehended by the sense organs. But such older methods may have persistyed in the background, and may still manifest themselves under certain conditions..."

Freud, S Recommendations to Physicians Practicing Psychoanalysis. Standard Ed. V.12 pp112-115. 1922.

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     These two articles seem to indicate that the unconscious connection the communication  is driven by the need of the psyche. The idea of heat would indicate a connection between two people in which there exists a passion, energy which may serve as a bridge to transmit this information.

     He state that after the merging phase of development which relied more on a magical process in which the mother some how knew what the childs needs were.  The child developed a way of signaling the mother to his needs. It is this signal that the images represent. It is a way of supplying unconscious material to the analyst.

This is an extension of the Klienen idea of the phenomena.

Definition of "reverie"  is a dreamy state. In German is Traumerein.

Me: It is the energy from the patient that lessens the analysts ego connection to the outside world allowing a slide into a psychic state of reception. To say whether this place is conscious or unconscious is of no benefit, rather what this important is that such a state exist and many clinicians have had this experience.

"...it is that state of mind which is open to the reception of any "object" from the loved object and is therefore capable of  reception of the infant's projective identifications..."

  It is an interactional effort that may be undertaken through indirect communication